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Every decision we make at Trinity Veterinary Hospital and Pet Resort is based on what is best for you and your beloved pets.  
In considering how to protect our Pet Resort guests and reduce communicable disease, we continuously evaluate our healthcare guidelines and protocols.  
With the emergence of Canine Influenza Virus in the state of Oklahoma we have decided to expand our requirements to include the BIVALENT H3N8/H3N2 Influenza vaccination to reduce the chance of a disease outbreak within our facility.

MONOVALENT Vaccination

will NOT be accepted 

Brief History of Canine Influenza Virus in the U.S.

Canine Influenza Virus (CIV) is a highly contagious viral infection that has caused significant respiratory disease outbreaks over the past 15 years.  The first documented occurrence of the CIV was among greyhounds at several Florida race tracks in 2004.   The virus was isolated and designated H3N8, which had originated in horses, but developed the ability to infect dogs as well as the ability for transmission between dogs.  Influenza viruses had never been associated with clinical disease in US dogs before, and the finding was unexpected.  The H3N2 strain was first observed in the Chicago area, that research showed, originated from birds which had only been documented in South Korea, China, and Thailand.  An infected dog likely was brought from Asia to Chicago, possibly as a rescue or military dog, and served as an infection source for other dogs. 

Can I Transmit Influenza to my Dog and Vice Versa?


In short, the answer is no.  There has been no evidence of transference.  Mutations can always happen over time, but at this point it is not considered a zoonotic infection so not transferable between humans and dogs. 

How Can My Dog Become Infected?


CIV is an airborne infection that is shed via aerosolized droplets when dogs sneeze, cough, or bark.  The virus can also be transmitted through direct contact with an infected dog, as well as through fomites (such as beds, blankets, bowls, toys) and people who have been in contact with infected dogs.  The virus can remain viable and infectious for 48 hours on surfaces, 24 hours on clothing and bedding, and 12 hours on human skin.

As with many viruses, the biggest source of transmission are carriers of infection.  A carrier is someone, dog, human, or any other species, that is spreading infection without showing any clinical sign of disease.  Dogs infected with CIV are most contagious during the incubation period, before clinical signs are apparent, and approximately 20% do not develop signs but still shed the virus and infect other dogs.

Due to the stability and highly infectious nature of CIV, areas where dogs come into contact with other dogs are a high-risk factor for transmitting this infection.  Dog parks, boarding, doggie daycare, grooming, pet stores, playdates, and any other areas of contact are all a potential source of infection.  This very reason has led us to be as proactive as possible to protect all our guests.   

The Difference Between Human and Canine Influenza Virus Strains

Two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (HxNx), are used to identify influenza viruses, and different subtypes and strains vary in their ability to infect specific host species. Influenza viruses cause well-described diseases in many species, including horses, birds, pigs, and humans. They can mutate easily, and their shifts from one host species to another are well documented. When a new influenza subtype or strain enters an immunologically naïve population, an outbreak is likely. 

The human influenza strain is called H1N1 and mutates more readily than strains that infect dogs.  The human influenza vaccine is made from the previous year’s virus strain which can have low efficacy if mutation has occurred.   Canine influenza strains have remained stable since their emergence in the U.S. and efficacy trials have shown that the CIV vaccine significantly reduces the severity and duration of clinical illness, including the incidence and severity of damage to the lungs.

What is the Difference Between CIV and Kennel Cough? 

“Kennel cough” is a blanket term used for any combination of infectious agents that cause bronchitis in dogs that is characterized by a harsh, hacking cough that most people describe as sounding like “something stuck in my dog’s throat.”   An uncomplicated kennel cough runs a course of a week or two and entails frequent fits of coughing in a patient who otherwise feels active and normal.  This classic presentation usually involves parainfluenza or adenovirus type 2 in combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica (these organisms are included in the “kennel cough”/Bordetella vaccination already required for boarding, daycare, and grooming).  Complicated kennel cough infection involves more aggressive organisms like Canine Influenza Virus and may progress to pneumonia causing significant illness, and worst-case scenario - death.
Below is a list of organisms included in the blanket term – Kennel Cough:
•    Bordetella bronchiseptica (bacteria)
•    Parainfluenza virus
•    Adenovirus type 2
•    Canine distemper virus
•    Canine influenza virus (H3N8 and H3N2)
•    Canine herpesvirus (very young puppies)
•    Mycoplasma canis (a single-cell organism that is neither virus nor bacterium)
•    Canine reovirus
•    Canine respiratory coronavirus.

What steps Do I Need to Take to Protect My Pets


The Canine Influenza Virus (H3N2/H3N8) is an inactivated or killed vaccine which means the pathogen has been inactivated so will stimulate the immune system without the risk of causing disease.  These types of vaccinations need routine boosters to create long-term immunity.  If your pet has never received a CIV vaccination before a two-part 30-day injection is necessary with an annual booster. 

Where Can I Find More Information


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